Mco1 Ignou Assignments

 

3

N

(v)

 Communicating:

This process helps in transmitting ideas to others for the purpose of achieving a desired result.

(vi)

 Decision-making:

 This process refers to consciously choosing a course of action from available alternatives to achievea desired result.

(vii)

 Controlling:

 This process measures the current performance and guides it towards some predetermined goal. It includesactivities that managers undertake to assure that actual outcomes are consistent with planned outcomes. There must be three basicconditions that must exist to undertake control and they are as follows:

(a)

Standards

(b)

Information

(c)

Corrective or counteractive action.Besides these principles they perform various roles also in an organisation namely, interpersonal roles which includesleading, liasioning, and symbol or figure head, informational roles covers monitoring, sharing information and to act as aspokesperson and decisional roles such as taking initiative, handling disagreement, allocating resources and negotiating. Allthese functions and roles are performed by the managers in order to maintain a balance between all the levels of management.These functions are performed by the senior managers and high rank officers in order to maintain a balance between the work andpeople. Besides assigning and getting the work done through the subordinates, it becomes the duty take care of them, by givingthem enough space to express themselves and work satisfactorily in the organisation. Thus, managers play a very important rolein the smooth functioning of an organisation by devoting his time to the staff and giving them enough space to express and solvethe issues, be it official or personal.

Q. 2. Discuss the Modern Theory of Organisation. How is it relevant in the modern organisation?Ans.

Organisation is a social entity grouped together to achieve the common goals and objectives. It helps in the properadministration, growth and diversification, optimum uses of resources, creativity and humanistic approach towards the superiorsand subordinates. Organisations adopt classical theories to attain effective functioning with their main streams as bureaucracy,administration theory and scientific theory. Scientific theory of management enables to determine the appropriate method toperform the various functions. It has three theories namely, neo-classical theory, modern theory of organisation and contingencytheory, which are applied according to the need and situation arising in the organisation from time-to-time.

Modern theory

 of organisation takes consideration of all the dynamic conditions at the micro and macro levels. It stresseson the integration if individuals and organistional units through system approach. It gets reflected in terms of inputs, process,outputs and feedback.The modern organisation theory believes in the dynamic conditions at micro and macro levels. It identifies the dramaticchanges that are taking place in the society. The modern organisation theory is a compilation of outlook of diverse theorists of organisation. The theory is based on the representation of a structure therefore it is considered to be identical with system theory.

Chester I. Barnard

 analyzed organisation as a societal arrangement of supportive communications among the members;organisation, individuals and customer are parts of environment.

Mary Parker Follet

 had laid emphasis on the integration of individual and organisational units through systems approach.

Norbert Weiner

 a pioneer in cybernetics gave crystal clear vision of the organisation as a system. Many other operationalresearchers like Churcham , etc. were also among those who think that the system as an interrelated having multifaceted functionsrelated to the various components. Some more social scientists like Katz and Kalu presented a complete theory of organisationusing open systems approach.The systems approach is extensively used in organisational investigation. It has proved to be a very useful tool for theconceptualization of the organisation and its external and internal relationships. It also assists in the contingency or situationalview of organisation which marks a fundamental disappearance from the traditional approach that emphasized generally as oneof the best way of structuring organisations. Under the control of systems theory the current view in organisations analysis is thatthe structure can vary from situation to situation depending on such factors as their environmental conditions and technology.

Scott

 and

Mitchell

 proposed

“contingency approach”

as new micro phase in management.Its major attention was problem solving puzzles and putting out fire, the approach had practical and realist flavours. It isconsidered as gentle wind in the management literature that dispersed the humanistic and general system fog. The main benefit of contingency theory was that it compelled us to be aware of complexity in every situation. It forces us to take active and dynamicrole in delivering out the best possible solution for each problem. It is similar to system theory as it examines the relationshipsbetween sub-systems of a specific organisation in a given environment and also offers desired solutions to particular organisationalproblems.

Q. 3. What is an individual behaviour? Explain the operant conditioning theory of learning. How is it differentfrom the classical conditioning theory of leaning?Ans.

The response made by an individual can be referred to as behaviour. The response could be the result of the influenceof external factors. The external factors can be termed as stimulus. The response can be termed as action taken by the individual.There are factors like heredity and environment that determines the behaviour of an individual. According to psychologists,

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