Web Link In Latex Bibliography Chapter

LaTeX is a great tool for printable professional-looking documents, but can be also used to generate PDF files having a navigation-friendly style in mind. In this article is described how to create hyperlinks in your document and how set up the LaTeX document to be browsed in a PDF-reader.

[edit]Introduction

Let's start with a minimal working example, by simply importing the hyperref package all cross-referenced elements become hyperlinked.

\documentclass{book}\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[english]{babel}   \usepackage{hyperref}   \begin{document}   \frontmatter   \tableofcontents   ... \end{document}

The lines in the table of contents become links to the corresponding pages in the document by simply adding in the preamble of the document the line


One must be careful when importing hyperref. Usually it has to be the last package to be imported, but there might be some exceptions to this rule.

  Open an example of the hyperref package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Styles and colours

The default formatting for links can be changed so the information in your documents is more clearly presented. Below you can see an example:

\documentclass{book}\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[english]{babel}   \usepackage{hyperref}\hypersetup{ colorlinks=true, linkcolor=blue, filecolor=magenta, urlcolor=cyan, }   \urlstyle{same}   \begin{document}   \tableofcontents   \chapter{First Chapter}   This will be an empty chapter and I will put some text here   \begin{equation}\label{eq:1}\sum_{i=0}^{\infty} a_i x^i \end{equation}   The equation \ref{eq:1} shows a sum that is divergent. This formula will be latter used in the page \pageref{second}.   For further references see \href{http://www.sharelatex.com}{Something Linky} or go to the next url: \url{http://www.sharelatex.com} or open the next file \href{run:./file.txt}{File.txt}   It's also possible to link directly any word or \hyperlink{thesentence}{any sentence} in your document.   \end{document}

This is a complete example, it will be fully explained in the rest of the article. Below is a description of the commands related to the colour and styling of the links.

This will set the options to configure the behaviour of the links within the document. Every parameter must be comma-separated and the syntax must be in the forma parameter=value.
Links will be coloured, the default colour is red.
Internal links, those generated by cross-referenced elements, are displayed in blue.
Links to local files will be shown in magenta colour (see linking local files).
Links to web sites are set to cyan colour (see linking web addresses).
Default settings print links in mono-style spaced fonts, this command changes that and displays the links in the same style as the rest of the text.

  Open an example of the hyperref package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Linking web addresses

Links to a web address or email can added to a LaTeX file using the command to display the actual link or to use a hidden link and show a word/sentence instead.

For further references see \href{http://www.sharelatex.com}{Something Linky} or go to the next url: \url{http://www.sharelatex.com}

There are two commands in the example that generate a link in the final document:

There are two parameters passed to this command, the first one is the url to the link, http://www.sharelatex.com in this case, and the second one is the clickable text to be shown, Something Linky.
This command will show the url passed as parameter and make it into a link, useful if you will print the document.

  Open an example of the hyperref package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Linking local files

The commands and presented in the previous section can be used to open local files

For further references see \href{http://www.sharelatex.com}{Something Linky} or go to the next url: \url{http://www.sharelatex.com} or open the next file \href{run:./file.txt}{File.txt}

The command prints the text "File.txt" that links to a local file called "file.txt" located in the current working directory. Notice the text "run:" before the path to the file.

The file path follows the conventions of UNIX systems, using . to refer the current directory and .. for the previous directory.

The command can also be used, with the same syntax described for the path, but it's reported to have some problems.

  Open an example of the hyperref package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Inserting links manually

It was mentioned before that all cross-referenced elements become links once hyperref is imported, thus we can use anywhere in the document and refer later those labels to create links. This is not the only manner to insert hyperlinks manually.

It's also possible to link directly any word or \hyperlink{thesentence}{any sentence} in you document.   If you read this text, you will get no information. Really? Is there no information?   For instance \hypertarget{thesentence}{this sentence}.

There are two commands to create user-defined links.

The first parameter passed inside braces to this command is a unique identifier for this sentence. The second parameter is the text "this sentence", and will be printed normally (depending on the value of anchorcolor, see the reference guide), but when a link pointing to the identifier "thesentence" is clicked the PDF file will scroll to this point.
This command prints the text "any sentence" as a clickable element that redirects to the point whose identifier is "thesentence".

  Open an example of the hyperref package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]PDF-specific options

Links in a document are created having in mind a document that will be read in PDF format. The PDF file can be further personalized to add additional information and change the way the PDF viewer displays it. Below an example:

\hypersetup{ colorlinks=true, linkcolor=blue, filecolor=magenta, urlcolor=cyan, pdftitle={Sharelatex Example}, bookmarks=true, pdfpagemode=FullScreen, }

Using the command , described in the section styles and colours, accepts extra parameters to set up the final PDF file.

Is the title of the PDF output file, to be displayed in the title bar of the window. In the example is "Sharelatex Example".
Adds a navigation menu usually shown in a left panel of the reader.
The document will be opened in full screen mode by the PDF reader.


See the reference guide for a full list of options that can be passed to .

  Open an example of the hyperref package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Reference guide

Linking style options

Option Default value Description
true Makes the page numbers of index entries into hyperlinks
false Makes the page numbers instead of the text to be link in the Table of contents.
false Allows links to be broken into multiple lines.
false Colours the text for links and anchors, these colours will appear in the printed version
red Colour for normal internal links
black Colour for anchor (target) text
green Colour for bibliographical citations
cyan Colour for links that open local files
magenta Colour for linked URLs
false Use small caps instead of colours for links

PDF-specific options

Option Default value Description
true Acrobat bookmarks are written, similar to the table of contents.
false Bookmarks are shown with all sub-trees expanded.
0 1 0 Colour of the box around citations in RGB format.
0 .5 .5 Colour of the box around links to files in RGB format.
1 0 0 Colour of the box around normal links in RGB format.
1 0 0 Colour of the box around menu links in RGB format.
0 1 1 Colour of the box around links to URLs in RGB format.
empty Determines how the file is opened. Possibilities are UseThumbs (Thumbnails), UseOutlines (Bookmarks) and FullScreen.
Sets the document title.
Sets the document Author.
1 Determines on which page the PDF file is opened.

[edit]Further reading

For more information see

When it comes to bibliography management packages, there are three main options in LaTeX: bibtex, natbib and biblatex. Biblatex is a modern program to process bibliography information, provides an easier and more flexible interface and a better language localization that the other two options. This article explains how to use biblatex to manage and format the bibliography in a LaTeX document.

[edit]Introduction

A minimal working example of the biblatex package is shown below:

\documentclass{article}\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[english]{babel}   \usepackage{biblatex}\addbibresource{sample.bib}   \begin{document} Let's cite! The Einstein's journal paper \cite{einstein} and the Dirac's book \cite{dirac} are physics related items.   \printbibliography   \end{document}

There are four bibliography-related commands in this example:

Imports the package biblatex.
Imports the bibtex data file sample.bib, this file is the one that includes information about each referenced book, article, etc. See the bibliography file section for more information.
This command inserts a reference within the document, [1] in this case, that corresponds to an element in the bibliography, "einstein" is a keyword corresponding to an entry in sample.bib.
Prints the list of cited references, the default title is "References" for the article document class and "Bibliography" for books and reports.

ShareLaTeX provides several templates with pre-defined styles to manage bibliography. See this link

  Open an example of the biblatex package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Basic usage

Several parameters can be passed to the package import command, as in the following example:

\documentclass{article}\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[english]{babel}   \usepackage{comment}   \usepackage[ backend=biber, style=alphabetic, sorting=ynt ]{biblatex}\addbibresource{sample.bib}   \title{Bibliography management: \texttt{biblatex} package}\author{Share\LaTeX}\date{}   \begin{document}   \maketitle   Using \texttt{biblatex} you can display bibliography divided into sections, depending of citation type. Let's cite! Einstein's journal paper \cite{einstein} and the Dirac's book \cite{dirac} are physics related items. Next, \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion} book \cite{latexcompanion}, the Donald Knuth's website \cite{knuthwebsite}, \textit{The Comprehensive Tex Archive Network} (CTAN) \cite{ctan} are \LaTeX\ related items; but the others Donald Knuth's items \cite{knuth-fa,knuth-acp} are dedicated to programming.   \medskip   \printbibliography   \end{document}

Some extra options, inside brackets and comma-separated, are added when importing biblatex:

Sets the backend to sort the bibliography, is the default one and recommended since it provides full localization for several commands and the styles for biber are easier to modify because they use standard LaTeX macros. The other supported backend is , which is a more traditional program; if set as the backend, bibtex will only be used to sort the bibliography, so no bibtex styles can be used here.
Defines the bibliography style and the citation style, in this case . Depending on the style, more citation commands might be available. See biblatex bibliography styles and citation styles for more information.
Determines the criteria to sort the bibliographic sources. In this case they are sorted by year, name and title. See the reference guide for a list of sorting options.

The rest of the commands were explained in the introduction.

  Open an example of the biblatex package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]The bibliography file

The bibliography files must have the standard bibtex syntax

This file contains records in a special format, for instance, the first bibliographic reference is defined by:

This is the first line of a record entry, tells BibTeX that the information stored here is about an article. The information about this entry is enclosed within braces. Besides the entry types shown in the example (, , and ) there are a lot more, see the reference guide.
The label is assigned to this entry, is a unique identifier that can be used to refer this article within the document.
This is the first field in the bibliography entry, indicates that the author of this article is Albert Einstein. Several comma-separated fields can be added using the same syntax , for instance: title, pages, year, URL, etc. See the reference guide for a list of possible fields.

The information in this file can later be printed and referenced within a LaTeX document, as shown in the previous sections, with the command . Not all the information in the .bib file will be displayed, it depends on the bibliography style set in the document.

  Open an example of the biblatex package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Customizing the bibliography

Biblatex allows high customization of the bibliography section with little effort. It was mentioned that several citation styles and bibliography styles are available, and you can also create new ones. Another customization option is to change the default title of the bibliography section.

\documentclass{article}\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[english]{babel}   \usepackage{comment}   \usepackage[ backend=biber, style=alphabetic, sorting=ynt ]{biblatex}\addbibresource{sample.bib}   \title{Bibliography management: \texttt{biblatex} package}\author{Share\LaTeX}\date{}   \begin{document}   \maketitle   Using \texttt{biblatex} you can display bibliography divided into sections, depending of citation type. Let's cite! The Einstein's journal paper \cite{einstein} and the Dirac's book \cite{dirac} are physics related items. Next, \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion} book \cite{latexcompanion}, the Donald Knuth's website \cite{knuthwebsite}, \textit{The Comprehensive Tex Archive Network} (CTAN) \cite{ctan} are \LaTeX\ related items; but the others Donald Knuth's items \cite{knuth-fa,knuth-acp} are dedicated to programming.   \medskip   \printbibliography[title={Whole bibliography}]

The additional parameter passed inside brackets to the command is the one that changes the title.

The bibliography can also be subdivided into sections based on different filters, for instance: print only references from the same author, the same journal or similar title. Below an example.

\printbibliography[type=article,title={Articles only}]\printbibliography[type=book,title={Books only}]   \printbibliography[keyword={physics},title={Physics-related only}]\printbibliography[keyword={latex},title={\LaTeX-related only}]

Here, the bibliography is divided in 4 sections. The syntax of the commands used here is explained below:

Only prints entries whose type is "article", and sets the title "Articles only" for this section. The same syntax works for any other entry type.
Filters bibliography entries that include the word "physics" in any of the fields. Sets the title "Physics-related only" for said section.

  Open an example of the biblatex package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Adding the bibliography in the table of contents

For the bibliography the be printed in the table of contents an extra option must be passed to

\printbibliography[ heading=bibintoc, title={Whole bibliography} ]   \printbibliography[heading=subbibintoc,type=article,title={Articles only}]

A section and a subsection are added to the table of contents:

  • In the first case, adding adds the title to the table of contents as an unnumbered chapter if possible or as an unnumbered section otherwise.
  • The second case is that adds the title as a second level entry in the table of contents, in this example as a subsection nested in "Whole bibliography".

  Open an example of the biblatex package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Reference guide

Supported entry types

article book mvbook
inbook bookinbook suppbook
booklet collection mvcollection
incollection suppcollection manual
misc online patent
periodical suppperiodical proceedings
mvproceedings inproceedings reference
mvreference inreference report
set thesis unpublished
custom conference electronic
masterthesis phdthesis techreport

Supported entry fields (The printed information depends on the bibliography style)

abstract addendum afterword annotate
author authortype bookauthor bookpagination
booksubtitle booktitle chapter commentator
date doi edition editor
editortype eid entrysubtype eprint
eprinttype eprintclass eventdate eventtitle
file foreword holder howpublished
indextitle institution introduction isan
isbn ismn isrn issue
issuesubtitle issuetitle iswc journalsubtitle
journaltitle label language library
location mainsubtitle maintitle month
note number organization origdate
origlanguage origlocation origpublisher origtitle
pages pagetotal pagination part
publisher pubstate reprinttitle series
shortauthor shortedition shorthand shorthandintro
shortjournal shortseries shorttitle subtitle
title translator type url
venue version volume year

Bibliography sorting options

option description
sort by name, title, year
sort by name, year, title
sort by name, year, volume, title
sort by alphabetic label, name, year, title
sort by alphabetic label, name, year, volume, title
sort by year (descending), name, title
entries are processed in citation order

For detailed information on these entries and options, see the package documentation.

[edit]Further reading

For more information see

@article{einstein, author = "Albert Einstein", title = "{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}. ({German}) [{On} the electrodynamics of moving bodies]", journal = "Annalen der Physik", volume = "322", number = "10", pages = "891--921", year = "1905", DOI = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/andp.19053221004", keywords = "physics" }   @book{dirac, title = {The Principles of Quantum Mechanics}, author = {Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac}, isbn = {9780198520115}, series = {International series of monographs on physics}, year = {1981}, publisher = {Clarendon Press}, keywords = {physics} }   @online{knuthwebsite, author = "Donald Knuth", title = "Knuth: Computers and Typesetting", url = "http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/~uno/abcde.html", addendum = "(accessed: 01.09.2016)", keywords = "latex,knuth" }   @inbook{knuth-fa, author = "Donald E. Knuth", title = "Fundamental Algorithms", publisher = "Addison-Wesley", year = "1973", chapter = "1.2", keywords = "knuth,programming" } ...

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